Widen the Usage of Chinese“有(yǒu)”
Basic Grammar of “有”
You know that “有” is a verb but are you confused about how it works? Today, we are here to talk about the usage of “有”.
The subject of a sentence with “有” is diverse. It not only can be a noun, but also can be places or locations. This kind of sentence with “有” is similar to the English sentence pattern of “ There is/are…”
Basic structure of “有”
The words of places or time + 有+ noun / noun phrases
Běijīng yǒu hěnduō zhùmíng de jǐngdiǎn.
北京 有 很多 著名 的 景点。
(There are many famous tourist spots in Beijing.)
Here, we can see Beijing(北京) is a place + 有, means “there is something in Beijing. 景点(jǐngdiǎn), here is a subject of the verb “有”，and 著名 的(zhùmíng de) here is an attribute to modify景点(jǐngdiǎn.). These two construct a noun phrase after 有.
Míngtiān yǒu yì chǎng liúdéhuá de yǎnchàng huì.
明天 有 一 场 刘德华 的 演唱会.
(There will be a Liu Dehua’s concert tomorrow.)
Here, 明天(Míngtiān) is a time word + 有， means there will be something tomorrow. 演唱会(yǎnchàng huì), which was modified by Liu Dehua(a famous star in China) is the subject of 有. The adjectives can be changed to your preference.
Wider usage of “有”
If you are still in bewilderment with the usage of “有”. Don’t worry, we will sort it out together.
The sentence using the verb “有” as its main verb usually express possessions. Its negative form is formed by adding the adverb “没(méi)” before “有”. Note: “不“ can’t be used here. Its V-not-V form is “有没有(yǒu méiyǒu)”
to express “there+be” ——–有(yǒu) and没有(méiyǒu)
Jiàoshì li yǒu hěnduō xuéshēng. Jiàoshì li méiyǒu xuéshēng.
教室 里 有 很多 学生。 教室 里 没有 学生。
(There are many students in a classroom.) (There is no student in a classroom)
Cāntīng qiánmiàn yǒu yí gè lánqiúchǎng. Cāntīng qiánmiàn méiyǒu lánqiúchǎng.
餐厅 前面 有 一个 篮球场。 餐厅 前面 没有 篮球场。
(There is a basketball ground in front of the canteen.) (There is no basketball ground in front of the canteen.)
to express possession ——有(yǒu) and没有(méiyǒu)
Wǒ yǒu yí liàng zìxíngchē. Wǒ méiyǒu zìxíngchē.
我 有 一 辆 自行车。 我 没有 自行车。
(I have a bike.) (I don’t have a bike.)
Tā yǒu yì běn hànyǔ shū. Tā méiyǒu hànyǔ shū.
他 有 一 本 汉语 书。 他 没有 汉语 书。
(He has a Chinese book.) (He doesn’t have a Chinese book. )
From the above sentences, you are able to notice the affirmative form of “有” : object ( can be pronoun, place and time) + measure word + subject(can be a noun are noun phrase). But the negative form of “有construction”—“没有” doesn’t have any measure word after it.
to express change happening to something
Zuìjìn, tā de hànyǔ yǒule míngxiǎn de jìnbù.
最近， 他 的 汉语 有 了 明显 的 进步。
(Recently, his Chinese has improved a lot.)
Xiàmén dàxué yǒule hěn dà de biànhuà.
厦门 大学 有 了 很 大 的 变化。
(Great changes have happened to Xiamen University.)
“有 usage” can be used everywhere in our daily life. Either places or times and changes. If you have been in china for almost one year, your parents will ask you :
—–Nǐ yǒu méiyǒu zhōng guó péngyǒu?
—- 你 有 没有 中国 朋友？
(Do you have any Chinese friends?)
—- yǒu. / méiyǒu
—- 有。 Or 没有。
— (yes I do./ no, I don’t.)
Well, if you want to go shopping with your friends, you’d better ask him or her:
—-Nǐ jīn wǎn yǒu méiyǒu shíjiān?
—-你 今晚 有 没有 时间？
(Are you free tonight?)
—- yǒu. / méiyǒu
—- 有。 Or 没有。
— (yes I am./ No, I am not.)
If we link 有 and 没有 together, it can be the interrogative form of the “有construction”. The answer is as simple as “yes or no.”
Now you know that “有” is widely used in daily life. Do you want to equip yourself with more useful expressions or definite construction sentences to impress me? Come and learn!