Widen the Usage of Chinese“有(yǒu)”

Widen the Usage of Chinese“(yǒu)”

 

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Basic Grammar of “

You know that “有” is a verb but are you confused about how it works? Today, we are here to talk about the usage of “有”.

The subject of a sentence with “有” is diverse. It not only can be a noun, but also can be places or locations. This kind of sentence with “有” is similar to the English sentence pattern of “ There is/are…”

 Basic structure of “

The words of places or time + 有+ noun / noun phrases

 

    Běijīng yǒu hěnduō zhùmíng de jǐngdiǎn.

      北京          很多      著名   的   景点。

(There are many famous tourist spots in Beijing.)

Here, we can see Beijing(北京) is a place + 有, means “there is something in Beijing. 景点(jǐngdiǎn), here is a subject of the verb “有”,and 著名 的(zhùmíng de) here is an attribute to modify景点(jǐngdiǎn.). These two construct a noun phrase after 有.

Míngtiān yǒu yì chǎng liúdéhuá de yǎnchàng huì.    

   明天                    刘德华      演唱会.

(There will be a Liu Dehua’s concert tomorrow.)

Here, 明天(Míngtiān) is a time word + 有, means there will be something tomorrow. 演唱会(yǎnchàng huì), which was modified by Liu Dehua(a famous star in China) is the subject of 有. The adjectives can be changed to your preference.

有

 

Wider usage of  “

If you are still in bewilderment with the usage of “有”. Don’t worry, we will sort it out together.

The sentence using the verb “” as its main verb usually express possessions. Its negative form is formed by adding the adverb “(méi)” before “”. Note: ““ can’t be used here. Its V-not-V form is “有没有(yǒu méiyǒu)”

 

  • to express “there+be” ——–(yǒu) and没有(méiyǒu)

  Jiàoshì li yǒu hěnduō xuéshēng.              Jiàoshì li méiyǒu xuéshēng.

      教室  里 有  很多   学生。                                     教室   里    没有    学生。  

(There are many students in a classroom.)              (There is no student in a classroom)

      Cāntīng qiánmiàn yǒu yí gè lánqiúchǎng.            Cāntīng qiánmiàn méiyǒu lánqiúchǎng.

          餐厅    前面    有  一个   篮球场。                                             餐厅  前面    没有    篮球场。

(There is a basketball ground in front of the canteen.)         (There is no basketball ground in front of                                                                                                                                                the canteen.)

  • to express possession ——有(yǒu) and没有(méiyǒu)

        Wǒ yǒu yí liàng zìxíngchē.                                          Wǒ méiyǒu zìxíngchē.

         我   有    一  辆     自行车。                                                我     没有    自行车。

(I have a bike.)                                                                         (I don’t have a bike.)

        Tā yǒu yì běn hànyǔ shū.                                              Tā méiyǒu hànyǔ shū.

        他  有   一   本     汉语  书。                                                    他   没有     汉语  书。

(He has a Chinese book.)                                                        (He doesn’t have a Chinese book. )

From the above sentences, you are able to notice the affirmative form of “有” : object ( can be pronoun, place and time) + measure word + subject(can be a noun are noun phrase). But the  negative form of “有construction”—“没有” doesn’t have any measure word after it.

 

  • to express change happening to something

  Zuìjìn, tā de hànyǔ yǒule míngxiǎn de jìnbù.

    最近, 他 的   汉语    有  了  明显    的    进步。

(Recently, his Chinese has improved a lot.)

   Xiàmén dàxué yǒule hěn dà de biànhuà.

      厦门     大学     有    了   很  大   的  变化。

(Great changes have happened to Xiamen University.)

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“有 usage” can be used everywhere in our daily life. Either places or times and changes. If you have been in china for almost one year, your parents will ask you :

—–Nǐ yǒu méiyǒu zhōng guó péngyǒu?

—- 你  有     没有     中国    朋友?

(Do you have any Chinese friends?)

—- yǒu.  /   méiyǒu

—- 有。 Or  没有。

— (yes I do./ no, I don’t.)

Well, if you want to go shopping with your friends, you’d better ask him or her:

—-Nǐ  jīn wǎn yǒu méiyǒu shíjiān?

—-你  今晚    有   没有   时间?

(Are you free tonight?)

—- yǒu.   /  méiyǒu

—- 有。 Or  没有。

— (yes I am./ No, I am not.)

If we link 有 and 没有 together, it can be the interrogative form of the “有construction”. The answer is as simple as “yes or no.”

Now you know that “有” is widely used in daily life. Do you want to equip yourself with more useful expressions or definite construction sentences to impress me? Come and learn!   

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Powerful “Suffix-r” in Chinese

 

         Powerful “Suffix-r” in Chinese

1

Suffixation of 儿(r) to nouns and sometimes verbs or adjectives, causing changing pronunciations of the preceding vowels, is a typical situation of pronunciation in Putonghua, or standard Chinese and some dialects.

In Mandarin, “Suffix-r” has the distinction functions for meanings and properties of a certain words. When it occurs changings in the context between the “Suffix-r” and normal words, you have to be careful about the different meanings and properties of certain words. Otherwise it will cause ambiguity. Such as:

dǐng (顶) is a verb, which means carry something on the head or push from below or behind . But when it’s changed to be Dǐngr(顶儿), the property is changed to be a noun, and its meaning is also changed to be the thing that bear the weight.

 yì diǎn(一点) means one o’clock when it is a normal word. But it turns to be a measure word and means “little, few” when it is has suffix-r, yì diǎnr(一点儿).

 

     头    tóu    means people’s head

 →头儿  tóur   means the head of a gang or the person in charge

      眼     yǎn   means eyes

  →眼儿   yǎnr   means a small hole

  Another one kind of suffix-r after words are expressing the emotional coloring such as love, favor, joy and so on.

花儿 Huār (flower) indicates love to flowers.

小孩儿  Xiǎo hair (little kids) indicates love to kids.

好玩儿 Hǎowánr (funny) indicating prefer having fun.

老头儿  lǎotóur   (old man) indicates having a good relations with the old man.

小曲儿xiǎoqǔr (ditty)  indicates having fondness of the ditty.

When we are expressing small, less, or light things, we also use suffix-r. Such as:

米粒儿  Mǐ lìr  indicates few rice that we can count

门缝儿  Mén fèngr means a narrow crack between a door and its frame

雨点儿  yǔ diǎnr   indicates few raindrop

一会儿  yí huìr   indicate a short time,  a little while

小事儿  xiǎo shìr  means little things

2

In the actual reading, end with suffix-r is pronounced with the preceding vowel. It is not a single part, which means is can’t be separated alone and read clearly.

Such as

哪 →哪儿 nǎr  [nǎ]─→[nǎr]  where  

那 →那儿 nàr  [nà]─→[nàr]  there

But in the broadcast language, especially in politics, science, academic programs, which require a higher degree of accuracy in language, we should minimize the using of suffix-r; and in written language or formal environment we also reduce the using of suffix-r.

Besides, you have to notice that there are a lot of words end with 儿 naturally. So don’t confound them with suffix-r.

Such as

女儿 nǚ ér is naturally ended with 儿 and means daughter.

婴儿 yīng ér is also ended with 儿 naturally. It means infant.

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“不”的用法简单说明

“不”通常用在动词形容词前面,对某个动作,性状进行否定。

(”不” normally used before verbs and adjectives, to indicate the negative form of the action or situation. )

如:

(1)我饭了。(“”是动词)(“” is verb)

(2)我游戏。(“”是动词)(“” is verb)

(3)这衣服漂亮。(“漂亮”是形容词)(“漂亮”是adjective)

 

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