Who shares the equal reputation with Confucius?
The doctrine of Confucius and Mencius is one of famous Chinese traditional cultures spreading all over the world now. Confucius and Mencius were both two masters on Confucianism.
Mencius (former 372 – former 289), whose hometown was in the State of Zou, (Now forming the territory of Zoucheng, Shandong province), also known by his original name Ke. He is a great thinker and educator in ancient China’s Warring States period, and one of the famous representative on Confucianism.
Mencius father was dead when he was three. Then Mencius and his mother were together alone in difficulties. After Mencius grew up to be a teenager, he was attracted by Confucianism. So he decided to leave his mother and went to Lu state, which was Confucius hometown to learn more about Confucianism. He took the student of Zisi who was one of the grandson of Confucius as him teacher to learn Confucianism. After a long time study, Mencius regarded the Confucius as the greatest man of the human being. Then he devoted his whole life to develop the Confucianism.
Mencius carried on the Confucianism and developed it a lot. But compared to Confucius, his doctrines are more extreme.
孟母三迁“Mencius’s mother, three moves
Mencius was very naughty in his childhood, and he was good at imitating. First time, his mom and he lived in near a cemetery.
Mencius often imitated the rites which he saw in funeral processions or burial services for amusement. Therefore the mother decided to move to the next house where was near a market in the town. But his mom found him beginning to imitate the shouting of merchants. Thinking of this environment was not good for son’s study, Mencius’s mother decided to move again. Then, they moved house cloth to school. Affected by the scholars and students, Mencius began to study. At last, his mother decided to remain. This is the story of孟母三迁 (mèng mǔ sān qiān), One of the most famous traditional Chinese idiom, which literal meaning is “Mencius’s mother, three moves”).
Famous saying from Mencius
Lǎo wú lǎo, yǐ jí rén zhī lǎo; yòu wú yòu, yǐ jí rén zhī yòu.
老 吾 老，以及 人 之 老；幼 吾 幼，以 及 人 之 幼。
Respect your own elders and extend such respect to those of others; cherish your own young and extend such cherish to those of others.
Dé dào zhě duō zhù, shī dào zhě guǎ zhù.
得 道 者 多 助， 失 道 者 寡 助。
A just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little help.
Tiān shí bùrú dìlì, dìlì bùrú rén hé.
天 时 不如 地利，地利 不如 人和。
The favorable opportunity does not help as much as the favorable terrain; the favorable terrain does not help as much as the group morale.
Shēng yú yōuhuàn ér sǐ yú ānlè.
生 于 忧患 而 死 于 安乐。
(A state) survives adversity and perishes amid leisure.
Fùguì bùnéng yín, pínjiàn bùnéng yí, wēiwǔ bùnéng qū, cǐ zhī wèi dàzhàngfū.
富 贵 不能 淫， 贫贱 不能 移，威武 不能 屈，此 之 谓 大丈夫。
No riches or honors may induce him to corrupt; no poverty or lowliness may cause him to waver; no might or force may compel him to submit. Such would be what we call a great man.
Mín wéi guì, shèjì cì zhī, jūn wéi qīng.
民 为 贵， 社稷 次 之， 君 为 轻。
To a state, the people are the most important thing. The state comes second. The ruler is the least important.”